A stored subgroup of the Oolong tea category. During the storage period, the tea is regularly heat-treated to reduce the moisture level in the leaves. Aged Oolong develops a soft texture through several years of careful drying.
A subgroup of the Oolong tea category. Amber is characterized by a high level of baking in the final processing. Rich in aroma and flavor. Examples are Tie Guan Yin and Qi Zhong.
It is through subspecies of the plant Coffea Arabica that most of us have become well acquainted with coffee. This species originated in what is considered the home of coffee, Ethiopia. Today, Arabica is the most important coffee plant and accounts for more than half of the world's coffee production. In addition, the plant produces beans of far higher quality than the Robusta and Liberica species.
From Ethiopia, the coffee plant was exported to Yemen where it was commercially cultivated as early as the 6th century. Since then, Arabica has been transported to countries throughout the tropical belt where mutations and crosses have led to the creation of new bean types. The best-known varieties are Borboun and Typica, and these are also the basis for a number of other subspecies.
The Arabica plant, which most of us think of when we talk about coffee, is a large shrub with dark green, oval leaves. It is different from other coffee species, as it has four sets of chromosomes instead of two (technically called tetraploid - cell that has quadruple set of chromosomes). What's special about this is that it allows scientists to distinguish whether a cultivar comes from an Arabica strain or a Robusta strain. The differences in the chromosomes determine the characteristics of the coffee, which can affect flavor, body and acidity.
There are two scientifically recognized botanical varieties (offspecies) of Arabica - Typica and Bourbon. From these come a wide range of subspecies - resulting from mutations, natural hybrids and man-made crosses.
As the name implies, a berry-dried coffee is dried with the whole coffee berry intact. This means that more of the sweetness in the pulp is transferred to the coffee bean. A berry-dried coffee often offers very sweet, strong and complex flavors in the cup.
Berry drying is also called "unwashed", "naturally dried" or "natural". This is the oldest form of processing and is the easiest to perform in terms of equipment, water and resource requirements. However, berry drying of coffee involves several critical factors and requires careful monitoring to avoid uncontrolled fermentation.
After picking, the coffee berries are mostly sorted and cleaned by hand or in water tanks. In the tanks, the ripe coffee berries sink and are separated from the berry species, leaves and twigs. The berries are then dried on large concrete areas, smaller patios or raised beds. During the drying period, the berries are turned regularly to ensure even drying and air supply. It can take up to four weeks for the coffee berries to dry completely, depending on the weather. Drying is the critical step in processing. If the crop is exposed to rain during this phase, there is a risk of mold and toxins. These occur between the pulp and the bean, which can destroy the coffee batch. Finally, the dried pulp is removed using machines (hulling) before the beans are sorted and graded. The berry-dried coffee beans are now ready for sale.
Barista comes from the Italian word for bar, and usually refers to a bartender who specializes in espresso-based coffee making.
Coffee trees flower after prolonged periods of heavy rainfall. As a rule, this happens in three rounds, about twenty days apart, with each flowering lasting two to three days. The coffee flower is white and can resemble jasmine, both in appearance and scent. Fertilization occurs with the help of wind and insects, and it takes about nine months from flowering to ripe coffee berries. After fertilization and flowering, the coffee berries, which are initially small and green, gradually grow.
From week 10, the bean, i.e. the seed inside the coffee berry, begins to grow rapidly. At the same time, the coffee beans absorb more than half of the tree's production of photosynthesis. This inhibits the growth of the coffee tree. About five weeks after the coffee beans have finished growing, the color of the berry changes. The green color transforms to yellow before the ripe coffee berry turns a juicy red color. There are exceptions, and Yellow Bourbon is an example of this. Due to a defective color gene, this bean type is completely yellow when ripe.
The coffee industry has been scientifically keeping track of coffee botany since the 18th century, when Swedish botanist Carl von Linne first described the genus Coffea in 1753. From the botanical family Rubiaceae come the three species used to grow coffee commercially; Coffea Arabica, Coffea Canephora and Coffea Liberica.
We know that Coffea Arabica originates from the great plateaus of Ethiopia. The coffee plant was exported to Yemen where it was commercially cultivated as far back as the 6th century. Since then, the plant has been moved around the entire tropical belt and is today the most traded agricultural product in the world.
Canephora has its origins in central Africa. When we talk about Coffea Canephora, we normally refer to the Robusta variety.
The third species - Liberica - originates in West Africa. This coffee is only sold locally, but is sometimes used as a rootstock for Arabica coffee, especially in areas where the roundworm parasite is a problem.
The Arabica plant, which most of us think of when we talk about coffee, is a large shrub with dark green, oval leaves. It is different from other coffee species as it has four sets of chromosomes instead of two (technically called tetraploid - cell that has quadruple set of chromosomes). What's special about this is that it allows scientists to distinguish whether a cultivar comes from an Arabica strain and a Robusta strain. The differences in the chromosomes determine the characteristics of the coffee, which can affect flavor, body and acidity.
There are two scientifically recognized botanical varieties (offspecies) of Arabica - which are Typica and Bourbon. In addition, there are unclassified varieties, but there is a great deal of work to be done before these can be categorized as a genetically distinct variety.
Cultivated varieties of Typica and Bourbon are usually called cultivars (cultivated plant). There are a number of coffees, such as Geisha and many other recently rediscovered Ethiopian coffees, for which it has not been possible to determine whether they are varieties or cultivars. Future research, largely based on chromosome studies, will enable us to accurately describe the correct terminology to use for these coffees.
Some of the cultivars have arisen naturally as mutations, such as Caturra and Pointu. Other cultivars, such as Mundo Novo and Maragopype, are the result of natural hybrids. Some are also the result of breeding programs, such as Catuai, Pacamara and Catiomor. One of the reasons for creating new cultivars is to increase resistance to insects and diseases such as coffee rust, coffee berry diseases and coffee borer (worms that bore into the berry and bean). Others have been developed in an attempt to reduce the height of growth to make picking the coffee berries easier, while at the same time providing higher yields in terms of the number of coffee berries on the bush.
There are currently a few breeding programs that attempt to modify coffee quality, caffeine content, acidity, body and/or flavor. New cultivars are currently being produced in Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Brazil and Hawaii.
In the 1700s, French colonists planted coffee bushes on an island in the Indian Ocean. Due to the soil, the plant mutated and a new type of bean was created. This was named after the island it originated on, Borboun (now Le Reunion), and was later brought to countries that are now among the world's largest coffee producers. Almost all Arabica coffee is now thought to be a subspecies of either Bourbon or Typica. However, with lower production than newer coffee plants, Bourbon is today primarily sought after for its quality and taste. Well-processed Bourbon beans tend to offer rich and full-bodied coffees with a good balance between sweetness and acidity.
Bourbon sidra is a new type of bean that is highly sought after and is constantly used by the world's best baristas in the World Coffee Championships. This is a hybrid grown in Ecuador to bring both the sweetness of bourbon and the delicate florality of typica. Unlike other hybrids that are often bred to create more resilient coffee plants, bourbon sidra is created to produce a very high quality coffee in terms of flavor.
Basically, all the world's tea varieties come from the same plant; Camellia Sinensis. This tree still grows wild in some places in India and China, where specimens have been found that are over a thousand years old.
Today, Camellia Sinensis is mainly grown commercially - in the form of manicured bushes and small trees - in many parts of the world. The tea plant thrives best in tropical and subtropical climates, and the best growing areas are located in a belt around the equator in mountainous areas up to 2000 meters above sea level. China, India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Taiwan are considered the classic tea-producing countries.
Botany: Camellia Sinensis was classified by Swedish botanist Carl von Linne back in 1753. He called the plant Thea Sinensis (tea from China). Because the plant belongs to the Camellia family, it is today known as Camellia Sinensis. The five main categories of tea - white, green, black, Oolong and Pu Ehr - all come from Camellia Sinensis. The difference between these is the way they are processed.
Just as with grapes and coffee beans, there are several botanical varieties of Camellia Sinensis. A distinction is usually made between two species, Camellia Sinensis Sinensis sinensis and Camellia Sinensis Assamica, but within each of these there are also many variations. Sinensis Sinensis is the Chinese type that is resistant to cold. It can grow up to 4-5 meters tall and has small leaves.
Camellia Sinsesis Asamica is named after the area it originally comes from, Assam in India. It is more hardy and robust than the classic Chinese tea plant. Assam teas can be grown right down to sea level and tend to be strong, malty and dark in the cup.
Catimor is a cross between Hybrido de Timor and Caturra, which was bred in Portugal in 1959. This variety produces high yields and is resistant to disease. In terms of taste, Catimor is not considered to be of the highest quality, due to the fact that Timor is a Robusta variety. However, there are some areas in Indonesia that produce good Catiomor coffee, provided the beans are well processed. This is often characterized by fruitiness and flavours reminiscent of herbs.
The Catuai bean type is a cross between Mundo Novo and Caturra, and has either red or yellow berries (Catuai-Amarelo or Catuai-Vermelho). Catuai is a dwarf variety that is very robust, both against heat and cold, and gives a very high yield. The plant needs a lot of care and fertilizer for optimal results. Catuai was first cultivated in Brazil, but is now found in almost all of South and Central America. The taste is characterized by a strong but very clean acidity.
Caturra is a Brazilian variety and a natural mutation of Bourbon. Despite being a smaller tree, Caturra produces larger yields than Borboun. The tree is relatively small, but has a thick trunk, many branches and wavy leaves. Caturra is considered a dwarf species and is now less common in Brazil. However, the bean is grown more frequently further north, particularly in Colombia, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. In the cup, Caturra is characterized by a clear acidity, low to medium body, and often with a less distinct sweetness and purity than Bourbon.
Ceylon is a former name of Sri Lanka, an island located off the southeast coast of India. It was the British who brought the tea plant from China to Ceylon in the mid-1800s. Towards the end of the same century, a Scotsman named Thomas Lipton would discover the tea plantations in the country. The man behind the world-famous Lipton has contributed to the fact that Ceylon today is a term that for many people is synonymous with black tea.
Most people associate chai with Indian-inspired tea containing spices and herbs. A more accurate term would be "masala chai" (spicy tea). Chai, on the other hand, simply means "tea".
A subset of the Oolong tea category. Within this category, Champagne includes those teas that are oxidized the most (70% or more). This contributes to rich and honeyed flavors in the cup. Some varieties are wrapped in damp cloths to control drying time (Oriental Beauty Oolong). Other examples of Champagne teas are Bai Hao and White Tip Oolong.
Colombia is a hybrid between subspecies of Robusta and Arabica. This variety produces high yields and is highly resistant to disease. Over the last few decades, new versions of Colombia (F1, F2, F3 etc.) have been developed. Castillo (F10) is the best-known variety and is considered to produce coffee that is comparable in quality to pure Arabica varieties. New selections of Colombia are continuously being cultivated, which means that the variety is constantly evolving in terms of quality and taste.
On the southern slopes of the Himalayas, with the mighty Kanchenjunga mountain as a backdrop, lies Darjeeling. In this world-famous district, tea has been grown since 1841, at altitudes of over 2000 meters. From here comes what many call the 'champagne of tea'. For almost 200 years, Darjeeling has cultivated outstanding qualities of the classic Chinese tea plant Thea Sinensis. Combined with a very special climate far above sea level, this means that the area offers complex and delicate flavors that are completely unique in the tea world.
Picking: The tea grown in Darjeeling is picked in several rounds, and each harvest has distinctive flavor characteristics. The most famous is called First Flush, which is the hand-picking of the very first tea shoots of spring. This harvest produces bright and fresh teas with complex and floral flavors. This is followed by an intermediate harvest before the second major harvest of the year, Second Flush, begins in mid-June. From this picking, we tend to get stronger teas, reddish-brown in color and lots of flavor. The last harvest of the year takes place in the fall and offers light and mild teas.
One of the world's most famous flavored black teas. The name comes from the inventor of the blend, The Earl of Grey, who was the head of the British trading house The East Indian Company. The 'secret' ingredient in Earl Grey is the yellow citrus fruit bergamot.
Espresso is a coffee drink, more intense and flavorful than filter coffee. The drink is served in small cups of about 3 cl that are drunk quickly and is made by pressing hot water through very finely ground coffee under high pressure, optimally 9 bar.
Due to the enormous diversity, there is no exact knowledge of the different varieties of Ethiopian coffee. There are more than 1,000 different varieties growing wild in Ethiopia. These are not dissimilar to Typica, which originally comes from Yemen. This variety was later smuggled out to Indonesia, from where it was brought to Latin America. Ethiopian Heirloom offers flavors that are among the most sought-after in the coffee world. In the cup, it is often characterized by floral and acidic flavours reminiscent of everything from sweet berries and chocolate to bergamot and jasmine.
A stage in the processing of Oolong and black tea. Involves heat treating the tea so that oxidation stops and the leaves dry. This is done to counteract undesirable processes such as mold formation.
Coffee beans are actually the seed inside a berry. It is the same seed that is used to plant new coffee plants. The beans are hand-picked from selected coffee trees and after a month or so they start to germinate. The small coffee plants are well cared for and watered, often in what is called a nursery. Here, the plants receive plenty of water and nutritious soil, as well as protection from direct sunlight. Along the way, the shade layer over the plants is reduced. After about 18 months, they are ready to be planted in the actual coffee farm. The time from planting to fruiting varies somewhat from species to species, but it usually takes around three years.
A coffee farmer needs to renew the coffee plants for several reasons. Some do not produce the desired yield, some become too old and others are infected by diseases. On the coffee farm, replacing, pruning and caring for coffee trees is a continuous process.
Geisha is a rare and relatively young bean type that is highly sought after. Many consider it to be the most interesting in the coffee world in terms of flavor intensity and complexity.
The plant first came to Costa Rica from the small town of Geisha in southwestern Ethiopia. In recent years, this variety has become very popular in Panama, and it is this country that has made Geisha famous.
The plant grows taller than other coffee bushes and has long, narrow leaves and berries. To realize the full potential of the bean, Geisha should be grown very high above sea level. In the cup, the bean type is characterized by a very pure sweetness, often with hints of berries and stone fruits and a fresh finish characterized by bergamot.
Genus is a group of species or organisms with a close relationship to each other in terms of similar botanical traits. Arabica belongs to the genus Coffea which includes more than 25 plant species.
One of five main categories within what is considered real tea; that is, it is made from the leaves and shoots of the original tea plant, Camellia Sinensis.
Green tea is the oldest category of tea and a central part of the culture in many parts of Asia. The tea can be produced in several ways, but a distinction is usually made between two methods: Chinese and Japanese. The main difference is the way the tea leaves are heat-treated after plucking, roasting and steaming respectively. The category offers great differences in the cup and the flavors can range from the mineral, oceanic to the vegetable and nutty.
Green tea - Roasted (China)
Production: The leaves are "withered" (controlled weathering) before being heat treated in a pan or drum until the enzymes are neutralized. The leaves are then rolled and dried. The leaf style varies from bullets (gunpowder) to long whole leaves that are rolled/shaped into different shapes (Chun Mee, Green Monkey) or pressed (Lung Ching).
In the cup: Golden green, vegetal, occasionally nutty. May also have a slight smokiness.
Green tea - Steamed (Japan)
Production: The leaves are "withered" before being steamed for less than one minute to neutralize the enzymes. Then the leaves are rolled or pressed and dried. The leaves are often straight, narrow and flat leaves, often with irregular sizes (Sencha, Gyokuro). Often cut into pieces during picking. Selected leaves are ground into a fine powder (Macha).
In the cup: Fresh, clear, vibrant green color. Often grassy on the palate, oceanic/salty, mineral and some with a toasted, hazelnut-like flavor and aroma.
Honey is a Costa Rican term used to describe processing methods that lie between berry drying and washing. We often call this sugar skin drying, and other countries use the terms Pulped Natural or Semi Washed. In the Honey process, the beans are dried with the sugar skin and pulp more or less intact. Honey is often divided into sub-categories based on how much pulp remains after drying. In ascending order, from least to most pulp, these are White, Yellow, Red and Black Honey.
One of five main categories within what is considered real tea; that is, it is made from the leaves and shoots of the original tea plant, Camellia Sinensis.
This category is named after the light-colored hairs that cover the shoot of the tea plant. White tea is picked very carefully and air-dried immediately afterwards. In this way, oxidation is kept to a minimum. White tea usually contains newly emerged shoots and is therefore considered an exclusive category. The tea is characterized by delicate, mild and floral flavours.
Originally, white tea was only made in China, from two botanical varieties of Camellia Sinensis; Shui Hsien (Water Spirit) and Dai Bai (Big White). The tea category is now produced in several places around the world. For the most exclusive varieties, only the outermost shoot of the tea plant is used - picked before it has fully opened. This leaves the leaf straight, cylindrical and covered in small white hairs. If the tea consists of two leaves and a shoot, it will be voluminous, open and irregular in size. White tea is neither rolled nor shaped.
Tip: White tea is best enjoyed on its own. That way, the mild and delicate flavor is not overpowered. Tea in this category can be brewed several times.
Amount of tea: 1-2 grams per dl of water
Steeping time: 3-10 min
Is a cross between members of the same genus or species. Hybrids can occur naturally or be created by human influence in the form of crossing and breeding programs. The coffee world is full of hybrids, both intraspecific (where two subspecies cross, e.g. Pacamara) and interspecific (where two species cross, e.g. Colombia).
The harvest is usually manual, which means that the ripe berries are picked by hand. In some parts of South America, machine harvesting is also common. This method makes it impossible to distinguish between ripe and unripe coffee berries, which has a negative impact on quality.
The coffee harvest can last up to three months, but varies slightly from country to country. The period is demanding and costly for the coffee farmer, who multiplies his workforce during the harvest. Because the berries ripen at different times, they need to be picked in several rounds. This is a process that requires a lot of resources and that some coffee farms do not prioritize. After all, it's much easier to pick whole trees and branches, regardless of where the berries are in the ripening phase. It's easy to guess that an unsorted mix of unripe and overripe berries has a negative impact on quality. The best coffee farmers always strive to pick only ripe berries, which provides an optimal starting point before processing. Equally important for the final raw material quality is that the freshly picked berries are processed as soon as possible after harvesting
Basic recipe for classic iced tea made from fruit teas
You will need:
35 g fruit tea
30 g sugar (can be omitted)
6 dl water
400 g ice cubes
Here's how to do it:
Pour the tea and sugar into the bottom of a press pot. Add 6 dl of boiling water and let the mixture steep for 8 minutes before pressing down the plunger. Pour the brew into a serving jug filled with 400 g ice cubes and stir until it melts. Serve in glasses with ice cubes. Feel free to add ingredients that enhance the flavors of the tea, such as citrus fruits.
A subgroup of the Oolong tea category. Jade are lightly oxidized teas with subtle, floral flavor characteristics. Examples are Green Dragon and Dong Ding/Tung Ting (Taiwan).
Jember is probably the predecessor of the Typica variety. Other common names for this species are Arabiga, Comun and Criollo, which are used in Latin America. Jember came to Indonesia from Yemen, but can be genetically traced back to Ethiopia. There is still much that is unknown about this variety, but the taste is characterized by caramel sweetness and a distinct herbal flavour.
From berry on plant, to black brew in cup. Coffee begins with the flowering of a coffee tree. What we know as coffee beans is the seed inside a coffee berry. From flowering to brewed coffee, there are many important events that affect the flavors you find in your coffee cup.
Home: First and foremost, the growing area plays a major role. The coffee world's great richness of flavor is partly due to the wide geographical spread of the growing countries. Today, the world's coffee production is dominated by large parts of South and Central America, and some parts of Asia and Africa. On all these continents, there are some areas where the soil is fertile up to 2,000 meters above sea level, which are particularly well suited to cultivating coffee of exceptional quality. It is in these places, where the climate, soil and vegetation are perfectly matched, that we look for lots for our farm and local coffees.
Coffee bean: Just as there are apple and grape varieties, coffee beans come in many varieties. In addition to growing conditions and processing methods, it is the type of bean that gives coffee its flavor potential. All coffee belongs to the botanical family Rubiaceae. The best-known member of the family is Coffea Arabica, and almost all coffee imported to Norway comes from this plant. This species originated in what is considered to be the home of coffee, Ethiopia. Since then, Arabica has been transported to all the major coffee countries in the world, where new bean types have been created. The best known are perhaps Borboun and Typica, and these are also the starting point for a number of other subspecies. It is often the case that the different bean types are specific to certain growing areas.
Processing: One of the most important events in the coffee's long journey is the processing process - which has a major impact on both taste and quality. There are a wide range of processing methods, and it is often knowledge and experience, as well as access to resources and water, that influence which one is used. The most well-known processing methods, which are also two opposites, are called wet processing and berry drying. In very simple terms, the beans in a washed coffee are dried completely without pulp and sugar skin. A berry-dried coffee, on the other hand, is dried with the entire coffee berry intact. This results in radical differences in the cup. Where a berry-dried coffee is full of sweetness and strong, complex flavors, a washed coffee is often characterized by clean and fresh flavor profiles.
Roasting: The combination of growing area, bean type and processing method determines how the coffee is roasted. It is the roasting process that unlocks the beans' flavor potential, and as with most raw materials, the result is best when the coffee is fresh. Depending on how the coffee is to be enjoyed - from strong espressos to light filter brews - each coffee gets its own tailor-made roast profile.
Brewing: The fruits of the coffee beans' long journey are harvested when the coffee is brewed. It's your opportunity to explore and influence the flavors. Whether you prefer an espresso machine, mocha pot, hand brewer, press pot or coffee maker.
Coffee beans are the seed inside a coffee berry that grows on plants in the Rubiaceae family. The coffee berry emerges after flowering and fertilization is complete. Initially, they are small and green, and at this stage the coffee beans have not started to grow inside the berry.
After about ten weeks, the coffee beans begin to develop inside the berry. At the same time, they absorb more than half of the tree's production of photosynthesis. This inhibits the growth of the coffee tree. About five weeks after the coffee beans have grown, the color of the berries changes. Green transforms into yellow before finally turning a dark and juicy red color. There are exceptions, and Yellow Bourbon is an example of this. Due to a defective color gene, this type of bean is completely yellow when ripe.
Just as there are apple and grape varieties, coffee beans come in many varieties. In addition to growing conditions and processing methods, it is the type of bean that gives coffee its flavor potential.
All coffee is part of the botanical family Rubiaceae and belongs to the genus Coffea. The most recognized species in the coffee family is Coffea Arabica, and almost all coffee imported to Norway originates from this plant. This species originated in what is considered to be the home of coffee, Ethiopia. Since then, Arabica has been transported to all the major coffee countries in the world where new bean varieties have been created. The best known are Borboun and Typica, and these are also the starting point for a number of other subspecies. It is often the case that the different bean types are specific to certain growing areas.
New subspecies are created by mutations or hybrids. Because Caffea Arabica is self-pollinating, natural hybrids are rare, and most subspecies are the result of natural mutations or crosses influenced by humans. In principle, virtually all Arabica coffee is related to Borboun or Typica, either in the form of mutations, crosses or hybrids. In addition to Caffea Arabica, coffee is also produced from the Canephora and Liberica species, but these are mainly used by large-scale industry players and are considered to produce coffee of lower quality. However, there are examples of hybrids between Canephora and Arabica subspecies that produce coffee that meets the requirements of quality players. Examples of this are Colombia and IHCAFE, crosses between Robusta (Canephora) and Borboun (Arabica) subspecies that have been cultivated to increase production and disease resistance.
Typica and Typica-based cultivars: Typica, Maragogype, Mocha, Kent
Borboun and Bourbon-based cultivars: Borboun, Caturra, Pacas, Pointu
Hybrids, mutants and crosses: Catimor, Pacamara, Catuai, Colombia, Ethiopian Heirloom, Geisha, Jember, Ruiru 11, SL28, SL34, SL795
It is during the burning that the magic happens. A somewhat featureless, green matter is transformed into a flavorful starting point for making a fantastic drink. By heat treating raw coffee, the beans darken in color and develop flavor and aroma. Coffee roasting can be explained so simply, but in reality it is an advanced and constantly evolving craft.
The challenge lies in harnessing the potential of each individual bean. That's why all our coffees, from farmhouse coffee to espresso blends, are given a tailored roast profile. With access to some of the world's best coffee raw materials, there are high demands when defining roast profiles. This focus on quality contributed to our early adoption of a lighter roast style. In this way, roasting becomes a tool used to bring out the flavor of the ripe coffee berry. This raw material character, which comes from factors such as bean type, growing area, microclimate and cultivation, means that you can taste the difference between regions, countries and continents in a light-roasted coffee.
A roast can last from 9 to 16 minutes and the temperature of the beans reaches up to 200 degrees Celsius. First, the beans go through a drying phase where the humidity must be lowered before they begin to develop aroma. This happens in the phase called "1st crack" where the coffee beans swell and begin to pop (the pyrolytic phase). During this phase, chemical reactions occur and the cell structure breaks down.
Now the cell structure becomes more porous. The coffee beans develop sweet, acidic and aromatic taste characteristics, while caramelization and browning (Maillard reaction) takes place. In proportion to this development, the amount of bitter substances in the coffee increases. After a while, the bitter aromas will dominate the coffee beans. This happens during "2nd crack", which is the development phase where the beans are so dark that they are considered espresso. The vast majority of our coffees are taken out of roasting before this phase. This is because we want the distinctiveness of the coffee to come from the raw material, the coffee berry, rather than the roast. Just like in a perfectly ripened fruit. We develop our roast profiles with the aim of accentuating this natural, raw material-specific fruit sweetness.
Burning style for filters, press pots and the like.
As a consequence of coffee being a raw material, we mainly roast in a "light" style here at Solberg & Hansen. This gives us cleaner and more transparent coffee, with a clearly developed sweetness and flavor from the coffee berry. The natural, fresh acidity adds life and character to the cup. If the raw material is of high quality, this in itself will give the coffee a natural richness. We generally don't want the taste of carbon, ash or the strong bitter intensity of dark roast coffee (not to be confused with body). The light roast coffee is mainly developed during roasting until just after "1 crack".
Examples: Gårdsegen and stedsegen coffee (Single Origin).
Burning style for light espresso and dark filter/press pot
As a rule, we stretch the roast profile of our espresso. This means extending the burn time, but at a lower temperature than normal. This prevents the beans from getting a sweaty and oily surface. This light-roasted espresso is cleaner, sweeter and fresher than many are used to. In addition, the raw material character - which comes from factors such as bean type, processing and growing location - is far more prominent than in most espressos. However, as a funnel coffee, this style will provide less freshness, complexity and raw material character than a light roast. Espressos and dark coffees roasted in this way are taken out of the roaster towards the end of the "1st crack".
Examples: Farmhouse and estate espresso, SH Espresso, French roast, Sertaozinho.
Roast style for our classic espresso blends
Although considered classics, the roast profiles of these blends are constantly evolving, and even in this category the style is lighter than before. Generally speaking, these are roasts that are moving towards what we like to call "Italian roast". This style is characterized by a nutty caramel sweetness that comes from the roasting process rather than the raw material. This is the darkest we allow ourselves to roast coffee, but it is still not so dark that the whole raw material character disappears. Coffee roasted in this way is well suited to espresso-based milk drinks.
Examples: Half &Half and Italian brandy
Kent is a subspecies of Typica that was discovered in India. This coffee plant is a natural hybrid that produces high yields. Among other things, Kent is known to be resistant to coffee rust.
Cross-pollination means that one plant is fertilized with pollen from another plant. Robusta is a cross-pollinating plant.
A cultivar has been selected on the basis of desirable and characteristic properties that distinguish it from other plants in the same genus. These must have a name that complies with the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP, commonly referred to as the "Plant Code"). The name must be distinguishable from other cultivars and, when propagated, the plant must retain its characteristic features. Coffee cultivars include Caturra, Mundo Novo and Ruiru 11. Bourbon and Typica can also be used as cultivar names - for example, Red Bourbon.
Lapsang Souchong is an old Chinese tea tradition. It is usually smoked over a fire of pine trees, which contributes to the tea's strong, distinctive flavor. Lapsang Souchong was Winston Churchill's favorite tea.
A Chinese tea specialty also known as "Dragon Well". The tea leaves are gently heated in pans during processing to prevent oxidization.
Maracaturra is one of the bean types nicknamed "elephant beans". This cross between Caturra and Maragogype is not over-represented on farms and plantations in the coffee world. However, when you first see a Maracaturra tree, it is easy to spot. The large and eye-catching berries are as distinctive as the coffee's flavor. Maracaturra coffee is often characterized by complex acidity combined with light fruitiness. The large elephant bean is a rare commodity on coffee shelves, but those that are produced are often unique coffees.
This variety is often called elephant beans, which is because the beans are extremely large. In addition, the coffee tree and leaves are very large. The variety originates from Brazil and is a mutation of the original Ethiopian Typica variety. Maragogype produces relatively little coffee. The variety has spread throughout Latin America in recent centuries. The taste can vary from very full-bodied and aromatic to acidic and floral.
Mocha is a Typica mutation that is grown commercially in Brazil and Hawaii. Some time ago, it was thought that Mocha was a separate species. It turns out that the plant is an Arabica cultivar, which is proven because it has four chromosomes.
During monsooning, the forces of nature leave their mark on the coffee beans. This processing method is unique to India and is considered one of the most special in the coffee world. The process involves exposing the coffee beans to the Asian southwest monsoon.
The coffee berries are harvested from February to May, and those that are particularly suitable for monsooning are selected during the harvest. Due to the special processing process, the coffee berries must be large and fully ripe. After sun-drying, the coffee beans are ready for monsooning. The coffee is spread out on the floor of large open-walled warehouses as the monsoon sweeps in over the coast. After eight days, the beans are stacked in sacks that are exposed to the monsoon winds until they burst. The beans are left on the floor before the process is repeated approximately every ten days throughout the monsoon season. During monsooning, the beans absorb a lot of moisture, causing them to swell. The color of the beans changes from green to golden yellow and they become considerably larger. The combination of salty sea air, monsoon rain and wind causes the coffee to undergo a total transformation - both in appearance and taste.
A mutation is a natural chromosomal change in a plant. This can happen, for example, if a plant is moved from its original location. Several coffee plants are the result of mutations, most famously the Borboun variety.
Nyeri is a famous district in Kenya recognized as one of the finest growing areas in the coffee world. The area is located at the foot of Mount Kenya in Central Province. Here the soil is deep, fertile and rich in organic matter with a good ability to store water. The structure of the soil means that drainage and aeration are well adapted to the cultivation of coffee trees. The temperature in the area varies between 15 and 26 degrees, and the region receives abundant rainfall throughout the year due to its favorable geographical location. In addition to the microclimate and soil, it is the types of beans grown in the area, SL28 and SL34, that have helped put Nyeri on the coffee map. Because the farmers usually have small coffee farms with low production, they are organized in cooperatives.
Oxidation is a chemical reaction that is important for the production of the black tea and Oolong categories. The chemical reaction, which involves a substance combining with oxygen, causes the tea leaves to darken in color. This is the same thing that happens to an apple that turns brown when it is split in half.
Oolong is the name for teas that are partially oxidized. You can see this in the tea leaves, which are mottled brown and green, i.e. a cross between black and green tea. Oolong is a varied category that offers many sweet and complex teas. Traditionally, Oolong has been produced in China and Taiwan.
Oolong is the tea category that is the most complicated to produce. The leaves are withered (softened) for about eight hours (depending on the moisture content). Then they are lightly crushed by rolling or shaking. This starts the partial oxidation of the leaf's edges. Panfiring and air drying are used to further reduce the moisture content. Often rolling and drying are done alternately and this leads to a slow, partial oxidation. Many teas in this category are further heat treated in the form of baking after the initial processing.
Oolong is most often picked as three leaves and a shoot. The category includes both leaves that are curled into small balls (Tie Guan Yin, Dong Ding), and those that are straight and voluminous (Formosa oolong, Scarlett roab). Oolong is often grouped into five categories based on oxidation level and shape. These are Jade, Amber, Champagne, Pouchong and Aged.
In the cup: Well-developed, rich, complex and occasionally fruity. The color varies from light and green, to dark and reddish brown
Pacamara is a hybrid between the Paca and Maragogipe bean types. They are also known as "elephant beans" and are considered heavyweights in the coffee world - both because of their appearance and taste. Fittingly, the inside of the large beans is also characterized by strength and fullness. Pacamara is often recognized for its complex and intense flavour, but it's not just on the tongue that the beans can be demanding. Growing and roasting Pacamara beans can be a challenge. On the other hand, the rewards in the cup are correspondingly great.
Pacas is a natural Bourbon mutation that was discovered in El Salvador. This type of bean produces the best coffee if it is highly grown. The taste is often characterized by clear acidity and fruit sweetness.
This is part of the classic Chinese green tea making process. Pan firing involves heat-treating the tea leaves in a wok to neutralize the natural enzymes. The leaves are crushed and heated at the same time to prevent them from oxidizing. Today, this is also done in machines.
Peaberries make up about five percent of a normal coffee crop. Because the beans lie alone in the coffee berry, as opposed to in pairs, they are smaller and rounder than normal. Some farms hand-sort the coffee berries so that pure peaberry lots can be offered. Due to their fresh and complex flavor profiles, these have become highly sought after.
Parchment is a thin, protective layer that lies between the bean and the pulp of a coffee berry. When processing and drying coffee beans, the parchment is usually intact. The parchment is usually removed mechanically in dry mills. Coffee beans without parchment are called green beans and it is in this state that coffee is stored and exported.
In Indonesia, it is common to process coffee using a method called wet hulling, which involves drying wet beans without parchment.
Pointu is a Bourbon mutant that produces coffee with low caffeine content. Long thought to be extinct, this variety has been rediscovered on the Reunion Islands and the coast of Madagascar.
A subgroup of the Oolong tea category. Pouchong is marketed as Oolong, but is characterized by a very low degree of oxidation. In the cup, Pochong is complex with floral and light notes. This type of tea is also called "green Oolong".
The flavors you find in the cup are colored by a number of events that happen in the growing country. Among the most crucial is the period after picking when the coffee beans go through a processing process. This can be done in a number of ways and has a major impact on quality and flavor. The most well-known processing methods, which are also two opposites, are called wet processing and berry drying.
In very simple terms, the beans in a washed coffee are dried without the pulp and sugar skin. A berry-dried coffee, on the other hand, is dried with the entire coffee berry intact. This results in radical differences in the cup. Where a berry-dried coffee is full of sweetness and strong, complex flavors, a washed coffee is often characterized by clean and fresh flavor profiles.
Between wet processing and berry drying, there are a number of processing variants where the coffee beans are dried with the pulp more or less intact. Sugar skin dried is a collective term used to describe these variants. In other countries, we also know the terms "honey" and "pulped natural".
The processing process is therefore mainly determined by how much pulp is left on the bean when it is dried. Within each individual method, however, there are many procedures and a wide range in the quality of the work carried out. There are also some methods that are so characteristic and different that they have been given their own names. These are often linked to specific countries or growing areas. The Indian processing method "monsooning" and the Indonesian "wet hulling" are two well-known examples.
One of five main categories within what is considered true tea; that is, it is made from the leaves and shoots of the original tea plant, Camellia Sinensis. Pu Ehr is a small category of fermented tea that is aged for several years to allow the flavors to develop towards honey, camphor, mint and coffee. A well-aged variety is considered a delicacy. Pu Ehr is divided into two categories: The original "raw" variant, and a steamed version. Pu Ehr can be brewed several times.
Pu Erh is considered a black tea, but is actually a green máochá tea. During storage, the tea ferments and develops flavors unique to this category. A raw Pu Ehr is made by drying fresh leaves, pressing them in a mold and storing them in fresh air. The moisture from the environment causes the tea to age and ferment slowly. In an attempt to speed up the fermentation process, the steamed version of Pu Ehr was invented in 1972.
History: In Yunnan, caravans of goods used to travel to the rest of China, Laos, Tibet and Burma. To simplify transportation, tea leaves were pressed into round shapes. The caravans took a long time and during the journey the tea fermented slowly due to the high humidity. The unintentional tea category would eventually become highly sought after for its complex and distinctive flavors.
Pulped natural is a processing method where the skin is removed from the coffee berries before they are laid out for drying. This is similar to honey processing, where part of the pulp is removed before drying. However, in the case of pulped natural, only the skin is removed and none of the pulp is removed. Pulped natural can be described as a cross between berry-dried and washed, and can achieve the sweetness of a berry-dried coffee, but also the clarity and complexity of a washed coffee.
A term in the coffee roasting industry. Quenching means adding water during the roasting process so that the coffee beans are cooled before they are removed from the roaster. This is done to shorten the resting time of the coffee. At Solberg & Hansen, we do not practice the quenching technique. In this way, we extend the shelf life of the coffee. Because we only air-cool the coffee beans, we recommend that they rest in a closed bag for a few days after roasting.
After Coffea Arabica, Coffea Canephora is the most widespread plant in commercial coffee cultivation. Most people know Canephora through the subspecies Robusta. This coffee plant accounts for about 40 percent of the world's coffee production. Robusta is more robust and produces larger yields than Arabica, but is not considered to be of the same quality in terms of taste. Due to its high flavor intensity and high bitterness, Robusta is often used in espresso blends. The species is also frequently used in crossbreeding programs with Arabica subspecies. This is mainly because Robusta is far more resistant to disease than Arabica.
Rooibos is a drink that is brewed in the same way as tea. It is made from the needles of a shrub that grows both wild and cultivated in South Africa. The needles turn red through oxidation, hence the name Rooibos, which means "red bush" in Afrikaans. The plant is caffeine-free and does not become bitter if brewed for a long time. It has a natural sweetness and tastes good both with and without added flavoring.
Ruiru 11 is a Kenyan dwarf variety that was bred in the 1980s by the Coffee Research Foundation Ruiru distillery in Kenya. The aim was to produce a coffee that was resistant to disease while producing a high yield of good quality. Ruiru 11 was created by crossing Timor with Rume Sudan, a Typica variety known to be resistant to diseases in Africa. Ruiru 11 produces larger and more disease-resistant crops than SL28 and SL24, but the quality cannot match the sought-after Kenyan bean varieties.
Crushing is a common step in the processing of oxidized tea. By rolling the tea leaves, the cell walls in the tea leaves are broken down. This releases the oxidative enzymes in the leaf and initiates the oxidation process.
The Arabica plant is self-pollinating, which means that it uses its own pollen for fertilization.
This famous Kenyan variety was cultivated in the 1930s by Scott Laboratories. They experimented with mutations and crosses of the Bourbon and Typica subspecies French Mission, Mocha, Yemen and Typica. The aim was to find a variety that produced top quality, high yields and was resistant to disease. SL 28 is one of the results of these experiments, a bean variety that is still sought after today. The leaves are copper-colored and the beans are relatively large. Some believe that there are traces of both Ethiopian and Sudanese genes in this variety. Together with its descendant SL34, this SL28 has helped to give Kenyan coffee its good reputation. In the cup, the taste is often complex, sweet and balanced with an intense citrus note.
Along with SL28, SL34 is a bean variety that has helped give Kenyan coffee its good reputation. These were bred by Scott Laboratories in the 1930s. Here they experimented with mutations and hybrids that would produce resistant coffee with high yields as well as quality. SL 34 is a mutation of the Bourbon subspecies French Mission. Because it has bronze-colored tips on the leaves, there is reason to believe that it is more closely related to Typica than its predecessor SL 24.
The SL 34 is resistant to large amounts of precipitation, even at high altitudes. Both this and its predecessor have the potential to produce unique coffee batches and are therefore sought after in the specialty coffee market. In the cup, the taste is often characterized by complex citrus acidity, a powerful mouthfeel and a clean and sweet aftertaste.
A cross of different varieties of the Typica cultivar Kent - originally from Ethiopia. Grown mainly in India and Africa.
In this category, the tea leaves are completely oxidized. This is done after the surface of the tea is "destroyed" by rolling or cutting. The oxidative enzymes in the leaf are then given free rein to react with oxygen, after which the tea is sorted by size and visually assessed before grading. As a rule, this category offers variations of full-bodied teas with flavors of malt and honey. Black tea has traditionally been produced in India, Sri Lanka and China.
In the cup: Crisp and rich, often sweetish. Some are often drunk with milk (Indian and Sri Lankan). Chinese teas tend to be more complex and elegant. Clear, reddish brown to dark brown color in the cup.
One of the final stages in the production of tea. The tea leaves are sorted by hand by size and/or color, or mechanically by size.
Sugarcane drying is a term used for processing methods that lie between berry drying and washing. In other countries, this is often known as Pulped Natural, Semi Washed or Honey processed coffee. This processing method involves drying the coffee beans with the sugar skin and pulp more or less intact. This means that the coffee often shares the fruit sweetness and richness of a berry-dried coffee, while also feeling cleaner in the cup. Because sugar skin drying makes it easier to control the coffee's flavor profile, more and more coffee farmers are adopting the method. Sugar skin drying is most commonly used in South and Central America.
Basically, all the world's tea varieties come from the same plant; Camellia Sinensis. This tree still grows wild in some places in India and China, where specimens have been found that are over a thousand years old. Today, Camellia Sinensis is mainly grown commercially - in the form of manicured shrubs and small trees - in many parts of the world. The tea plant thrives best in tropical and subtropical climates, and the best growing areas are in a belt around the equator in mountainous areas up to 2,000 meters above sea level. China, India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Taiwan are considered the classic tea-producing countries.
Just as with grapes and coffee beans, there are several botanical varieties of Camellia Sinensis. This is the starting point for the tea's flavor potential, which in turn is influenced by soil, climate, temperature and rainfall. Then there are human influences such as cultivation, harvesting and processing that shape the quality and taste of the tea. The sum of all these variables makes the range in tea vast and varied.
In the wild, the tea bush will grow as large as a tree, while in the tea garden it is often trimmed to a height that is practical for picking. The newly sprouted leaves from the plant are picked at six-week intervals from the first flush of spring until the fall arrives. The smaller the leaves, the more expensive the tea.
In theory, only the extract from Camellia Sinesis is considered tea. In Norway, however, the word has become a generic term for drinks that are brewed in the same way as tea. It can be anything from herbs and dried fruit to leaves and flowers. The varieties that come from the tea plant are white, green, black, Oolong and Pu Ehr. It is the way the leaves and shoots are dried and processed that determines which category the different teas belong to.
Equipment: Make sure your brewing equipment has enough space for the tea leaves. The larger the leaves, the more spacious the strainer should be. If it is compressed too much, not as much of the aromas in the tea will be released.
Quantity: Remember that different teas often require different dosages. Because the specific gravity of tea varies, we recommend using a scale when brewing. If you do not have a scale available, you can assume that one teaspoon of tea is equivalent to two grams.
Water and temperature: Tea is best brewed with fresh, new water. Remember to adapt the brewing temperature to the type of tea you are brewing. For example, a strong black tea requires warmer water than a delicate white tea. Use a thermometer to ensure that the brewing temperature is correct.
Brewing time: Affects how much flavor and aroma is extracted from the tea. Because they are processed differently, the brewing time should be adapted to the different types of tea. If you brew too long, most teas will taste bitter. Some teas can be brewed several times, and some actually get better after the first brew.
Drying is a process phase in the processing of coffee beans. On the African continent, it is common to dry coffee on raised beds, while in South and Central America, the beans are usually laid out on concrete pads or smaller patios. The coffee beans are turned regularly to ensure even and good aeration.
The moisture level in the beans after harvesting is around 60 percent and will be reduced to 12 percent during the drought period. When it rains, the beans are covered with tarpaulins. If they are exposed to precipitation, the coffee beans can develop what are known as defects. When the drying phase is over, the coffee beans are usually sent to a dry mill where the parchment around the beans is removed before storage and export.
Typica was the first coffee variety found in the Kaffa region of Ethiopia. The coffee was introduced to Latin America by French sailors in the 18th century. This variety has since given us a number of mutations. The Typica variety produces a relatively low yield and is characterized by thin, copper-coloured leaves and oval beans. In the cup, this bean type can offer very delicate and clean flavors - often characterized by a pleasant sweetness and full body.
The fifth taste has been controversial since it was introduced in the early 1900s. In addition to salty, sour, sweet and bitter, umami is considered one of our basic flavors. In the company of foods such as meat, ripe cheeses and tomatoes, some green teas are rich in umami.
Wet processing is a processing method where the beans are dried completely without pulp and sugar skin. This method requires a lot of work and resources, as well as access to machinery and clean water. On the other hand, wet processing is a process that is relatively easy to control, and farmers can expect more consistently high quality coffee batches. A wet-processed coffee is often characterized by clean, fresh and delicate flavour profiles.
Wet processing in practice
This process is carried out in many different ways, due to varying factors such as equipment and water availability. Nevertheless, the basic principles of the sequence of events are quite similar. After picking, the ripe coffee berries are sorted before being transported to the processing unit. Here they are often placed in receiving tanks where the berries are separated according to quality. The fresh berries have a higher density than those that are dried out or damaged by insects. They are therefore sorted in the water, with the best berries sinking to the bottom, from where they are transported to the wet mill via channels or a funnel. The pulp is usually removed (pulping) mechanically in the wet mill, for example by pressing the coffee beans through a grate. Manual wet mills also exist and are commonly used on smaller farms that are not part of a larger cooperative. Some coffee farmers have their own wet mills on their farm, while others transport the freshly picked beans to cooperatives.
After the pulp has been removed, the slimy sugar membrane (mucilage) that remains must be broken down. This is done by placing the beans together in pools of water, fermentation tanks, where microorganisms are given room to break down the sugar membrane. This is called fermentation and can be described as a biological cleaning of the beans. Fermentation is an exact science and requires good time control and conditions that ensure the right microorganisms grow. Sloppiness in this phase can cause the wrong organisms to multiply too quickly by cell division, or the biochemical process to overrun in time. Consequently, this can result in defects that can destroy the beans in their entirety long before they see the inside of a burning machine.
The actual fermentation takes place in concrete tanks or pools, where the beans are left long enough for the sticky mucus layer to be removed biologically by enzyme effects. It is important that the pH value does not exceed 5.5-6.0. At this value, the correct yeast level is maintained, while other microbes such as mold and coli bacteria are prevented from developing. These can lead to infection, which gives the coffee beans a bitter taste. Fermentation time is mainly rooted in temperature, the quality of the crop, and the farmers responsible for the process. It is common for the beans to remain in the fermentation tanks for anything from 12 to 36 hours.
In recent years, machines have been invented that remove both the pulp and the sugar skin by creating friction. The machines are not able to remove 100% of the sugar skin, but they come very close. The advantage of this method is that it uses far less water and also creates less waste. This machine is also used by farmers who use the semi-washed method, because it allows you to control how much pulp is left behind.
Ideally, only ripe coffee beans should be fermented. However, over- and under-ripe beans are sometimes included. Unripe berries are fermented slowly while the ripe ones are fermented quickly. During normal fermentation, the sugar skin will remain on the unripe beans, which can have a negative impact on quality and a taste that can be described as green and unripe. There is a fine line between a successful and a failed fermentation process, and it is consequently monitored and stopped at the right time. An optimal execution can give the coffee batch a fresh and clean taste, fruity acidity, as well as fine and aromatic notes. Overfermentation, on the other hand, results in bean defects (ferment), which gives a downright unpleasant taste that will completely ruin the coffee. At the end of the process, the coffee beans are washed with water, either manually or mechanically, with the aim of washing off the loose mucus layer.
After washing, the coffee beans should be dried. A moisture content of 60-53% should be reduced to 12%, ideally as quickly as possible. Drying usually takes place on concrete pitches, patios or mesh beds. The parchment and silverskin are then removed before the green, export-ready beans are ready for sorting and grading.
Wet hulling is a processing method that is peculiar to Indonesia. This technique is very distinctive, both in terms of execution and the flavors it produces in the cup. That's because the method involves drying the coffee beans without their protective shell, parchment, right on the ground. This produces a process-driven flavor that can be described as dirty and earthy.
Term describing a stage in the processing of tea. Withering involves reducing the moisture level in the leaves so that the leaves become softer. This can be done in several ways, both manually and with machines, and is the first processing step after picking.
Yunnan is a province in China that is believed to be the origin of tea. In this area, the tea plant Camellia Sinensis still grows wild. Tea trees have been found in Yunnan that are more than 1,000 years old.